Raw milk vs pasteurised milk: Safety and benefits

Selling raw milk has been illegal for some time in Australia, under the premise that it is dangerous for human health. But is it really unsafe? What does the current science say about this? What are the nutritional differences in raw milk and pasteurised milk?

For years I believed that all dairy was detrimental for human health. It causes so much inflammation and disease, including asthma and eczma. For years I avoided it, and my health was better for it. However, I then came to learn about organic, raw milk. And now I present the case to you.

Raw milk destined for pasteurisation  is unsafe 

Pasteurisation is the heating process that raw milk undergoes to kill any pathogens that would cause sickness in humans. Raw milk that is “intended for pasteurisation” is generally unsafe to drink. This milk is produced by cows that often have compromised health, live in unsanitary conditions, and are fed hormones (to boost milk production) and antibiotics (to counteract their poor health somewhat).

This type of raw milk contains many pathogens which if consumed raw, would cause illness. It also contains hormone and antibiotic residues. This milk is then pasteurised which kills the pathogens, but it unfortunately also kills all the enzymes, probiotics and significantly decreases the nutrients, proteins and fats available.

Raw milk is safe and highly nutritious

However, raw milk that is not “intended for pasteurisation” is safe as numerous studies have illustrated. Raw milk that is from animals that are healthy because they are carefully looked after, who live in sanitary conditions and where the milk is clean, is not only safe, but highly nutritious.

There any many health benefits to drinking raw milk over pasteurised milk. Pasteurised milk is often cited as one of the top food allergies and is difficult to digest (Frequently asked questions about food allergies. Food and Drug Administration website). In contrast, great quality raw milk is easily digested and in fact prevents food allergies from forming (Loss G et al 2011 The protective effect of farm milk consumption on childhood asthma and atopy: The GABRIELA study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 128(4):766-73; House JS et al 2017 Early-life farm exposures and adult asthma and atopy in the Agriculture Lung Health Study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 140(1):249-56).

Raw milk contains beneficial living bacteria

The presence of living bacteria which helps produce the lactase enzyme which enables easy digestion means people with lactose intolerance can consume raw dairy just fine! (Sanders SW et al 1992 Effect of a single dose of lactase on symptoms and expired hydrogen after lactose challenge in lactose-intolerant subjects. Clinical Pharmacy 11(6):533-8). The enzymes that help you digest the lactose are denatured, or killed, during the heating process of pasteurisation.

Pasteurising milk reduces the nutrient value significantly

Raw milk includes bioavailable vitamins and minerals, proteins, excellent fats, enzymes and probiotics! However, pasteurisation of milk has a detrimental effect on the nutrient value of the milk.  Pasteurised milk has much less nutrients and the fats, proteins, enzymes and probiotics are denatured (rendered useless to the body).

Research shows that pasteurising the milk causes a reduction in calcium and phosphorus bioavailability, decreases copper, iron, Vitamin A, B complex, C and E. It destroys beta-lactoglobulin which decreases intestinal absorption of Vitamin A and D, it destroys probiotics and inactivates enzymes needed for the body to digest the milk.

(Kramer, MM et al. 1928 Dept of Food Economics and Nutrition. A comparison of raw, pasteurised, evaporated, and dried milks as sources of calcium and phosphorus for the human subject; Zurera-Cosano G et al 1994 Effect of processing on contents and relationships of mineral elements of milk. Food Chemistry. 51(1):75-8; Raw Milk Questions and Answers. 2019 USA CDC Nov 6; Panfili G et al. 1998 Influence of thermal and other manufacturing stresses on retinol isomerization in milk and dairy products. Journal of Dairy Research 65(2):253-60; Macdonald LE et al 2011 A systemic review and meta-analysis of the effects of pasteurization on milk vitamins, and evidence for raw milk consumption and other health-related outcomes. Journal of Food Protection. 74(11):1814-32; Said HM et al 1989 Intestinal uptake of retinol: enhancement of bovine milk beta-lactoglobulin. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 49(4):690-4; Yang, MC et al 2009 Evidence for beta-lactoglobulin involvement in vitamin D transport in viva- role of the gamma0turn of beta-lactoglobulin in vitamin D binding. FEBS Journal. 276(8):2251-65; Harvard Men’s Health Watch 2018 The growing role of probiotics; Dairy Foods Science Notes 2007 Alkaline Phosphatase testing for milk pasteurization. Cornell University).

Ever wondered why synthetic vitamins are added back into milk after it’s been pasteurized? Now you know why. But remember that synthetic vitamins are NOT the same as the real deal.

Raw milk contains an abundance of nutrients and probiotics

In direct contrast, raw milk has a large amount of important nutrients, enzymes, vitamins, minerals which are usable by the body, and it is easily digestible. It is a great source of calcium, iron, Vitamin A, D, K, phosphorus, zinc, CLA and omega 3 fatty acids, not to mention the many beneficial probiotics and enzymes (Heckman 2015 The role of trees and pastures in organic agriculture. Sustainable Agriculture Research 4:47-55.)

There are many different types and large amounts of probiotics in raw milk (Quigley L et al 2013 The complex microbiota of raw milk. FEMS Microbiology Review 37(5):664-98. These nutrients benefit the gastrointestinal system and the immune system.

Chronic disease used to be treated with raw milk

Raw milk used to be used in hospitals to treat many chronic diseases such as CVD, renal disease liver disease, hypertension, edema, asthma, arthritis, TB and diabetes (Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the US Livestock Sanitary Association 1925 Use of Milk in the Treatment of Human Disease)!


The benefits of consuming raw milk on health

Many large European studies comparing pasteurised and raw milk, have shown the following benefits:

  • significantly lower rates of allergies and asthma
  • protection against childhood asthma and eczema
  • significantly less childhood asthma, rhino-conjunctivitis, sensitization to pollen, and food allergens, atopy, respiratory infections
  • better lung function in adulthood

(Loss G et al 2011 The protective effect of farm milk consumption on childhood asthma and atopy: The GABRIELA study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 128(4):766-73; Brick T et al 2016 omega-3 fatty acids contribute to the asthma-protective effect of unprocessed cow’s milk. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 137(6):1699-1706; Waser, M et al 2007 Inverse association of farm milk consumption with asthma and allergy in rural and suburban populations across Europe. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 37(5):661-70; House JS et al 2017 Early-life farm exposures and adult asthma and atopy in the Agriculture Lung Health Study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 140(1):249-56; Wyss AB et al 2018 Raw milk consumption and other early-life farm exposures and adult pulmonary function in the agricultural lung health study. Thorax. 73(3):279-82; Loss G et al 2015 Consumption of unprocessed cow’s milk protects infants from common respiratory infections. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 135(1):56-62).

Safety of pasteurised and raw milk

Of course, no food is completely safe. In the USA, CDC data shows since 1972 there were 82 deaths from pasteurised dairy! In the USA, the CDC data does not differentiate between raw milk intended for pasteurisation from raw milk that is carefully prepared. The data collected is from raw milk destined for pasteurisation and up to 24% testing positive for pathogens (CDC Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks- US 2009-2015). As stated earlier, milk destined for pasteurisation that is raw is unsafe to drink.  Even so, there have only been 2 deaths since 1972 and both of these deaths were from queso fresco (which is “bathtub cheese” made illegally at home, and is known to be much more dangerous than raw milk) (CDC Population Survey Atlas of Exposures 2006-2007).  Nearly 10 million US citizens consume raw milk as of 2007. Without including queso fresco, from 2000-2007, there was a “roughly 1 in 94,000 chance of becoming ill from drinking unpasteurised milk”. There were 12 hospitalisations, which is an average of 1.5 per year. You have about a 1 in 6 million chance of being hospitalised due to drinking raw milk! (Raw milk reality: is raw milk dangerous? 2019 Kresser C http://chriskresser.com/raw/-milk.-reality-is-raw-milk-dangerous/). Since then, improvements in raw milk production have been made including rigorous testing, with a significant reduction in illnesses related to raw milk.


In conclusion, raw diary from animals that are well looked after, who live in sanitary conditions, who are free from disease, and who are fed on organic pastures, produce milk that is not only safe, but also an incredible source of vitamins, minerals, enzymes, fats, proteins and probiotics. I used to believe dairy was detrimental for human health. It is true that pasterurised non-organic dairy is indeed terrible for your health, but it is NOT the same as organic raw milk intended for human consumption RAW. Consume it raw, just as it was designed, in a safe manner. Clearly the evidence shows that children and adults alike are better for including it in their diet.

I hope you can get your hands on some raw dairy to include it in your daily diet.

Please leave a comment below and get the discussion going!

Acknowledgements: Raw Milk Institute Board of Directors RawMilkInstitute.org. 2019

Make your own homemade YOGHURT!

Making your own homemade yoghurt is so easy to do. I used to make it with organic, unhomogenised milk, however now I make it with our fresh raw Jersey cow milk. It is the same process.
Yoghurt is a rich source of protein and has over 400 different types of fatty acids! Full fat homemade yoghurt, without added sugars, preservatives and other nasties, provides nearly every nutrient you need! It boasts B12 (found nearly exclusively in animal foods), phosphorus, calcium and riboflavin (B2). But best of all, it is a rich source of probiotics.
Of course, all yoghurt is NOT created equal! Commercial yoghurt has many nasty additives in it, and lots of sugar. Look for organic plain yoghurt without added sugar, to get more benefits and no harmful substances. Or make homemade yoghurt yourself from organic milk (or better yet, RAW milk!)


• 2 litres milk (Ideally fresh, organic raw milk. Or organic store-bought milk)
• ½ cup of plain yoghurt (from your last batch of homemade yoghurt, or from store bought plain organic yoghurt)


1. Place 2 L of milk into your slow cooker.
2. Turn in on low for 2.5 hours.
3. Then turn it off, and leave it in the slow cooker for a further 3 hours.
4. Then take a half cup of warm milk out of the slow cooker, and add to it a half a cup of plain yoghurt from your last batch of homemade yoghurt, or some store bought organic plain yoghurt.
5. Whisk these two together, and then pour the mix into the slow cooker with the rest of the warm milk.
6. Whisk it all together so there are no lumps in the slow cooker.
7. Then take the slow cooker pot with the milk and yoghurt mix in it out of the outer container. Place it on a blanket and then wrap it up nice and snug. You want to help it maintain its temperature.
8. Leave it there for 7-12 hours, depending on how thick you like your yoghurt (the longer, the thicker), and what the environmental temperature is. In winter, I place mine in the blanket in front of the wood fire. In summer I still place it there, but the fire isn’t going!
9. Then ladle it into glass jars and pop in the fridge. If you are making smaller quantities, before wrapping it in the blanket, I pour the warm milk into smaller serve size jars, then wrap them in the blanket. Once they are finished, simple pop them in the fridge.


I get my homemade yoghurt started in the mid-afternoon when the kids are having afternoon tea. Then I get to Step 7 before bed (mix in the yoghurt), and Step 8 can occur over night (snug in the blankets). First thing in the morning, I put it into the fridge.
Your homemade yoghurt is best enjoyed cold, so let it chill before eating.

Ask your questions below or LEAVE A COMMENT !

Printable version: Yoghurt recipe 3-1-22

Guide to preparing your own horseradish


Horseradish is great for curing your colds, sinus infections, and other upper respiratory tract infections, and possibly even helps prevent cancer!

It’s easy to prepare, and it’s even easier to grow it yourself! Just pop a bit of root into the ground (yes, it’s that easy). It doesn’t matter how much of the root, or which way you put it into the ground! It will grow with sunshine and a bit of water when it’s really hot.

Beware: if you prepare your own it is much stronger than horseradish your buy from the shop. It is also much more nutritious and beneficial for your health.


  • 20-25cm of fresh horseradish root
  • 2 tbsp of rain or spring water
  • 2 tbsp Organic Apple Cider Vinegar


  1. Open your kitchen windows and doors. Have your room WELL VENTILATED. This is important. The fumes can really hurt your eyes and respiratory tract so be very careful.
  2. Thoroughly wash all the dirt off the roots. Most people peel the root, but I don’t as there is lots of goodness in the skin too.
  3. Chop it into chunks about 5cm long.
  4. Put it in the food processor.
  5. Put the water in with the roots. Before your process it, have your vinegar ready.
  6. Process the horseradish roots until they are very small. Keep yourself at arm’s length and carefully open the lid.
  8. Add the vinegar. This stabilises the hotness and the odour somewhat so get it in quickly!
  9. Put as much vinegar in as you think you need to get a good consistency and stabilise the heat.
  10. Carefully place the minced horseradish into jars. It keeps in the fridge for 3-4 weeks. I make a big batch of lots of small jars, and freeze it. We then enjoy it all year around until we make the next batch!

TIPS: Use it is as a condiment on roast meats, mixed through cooked vegetables, mixed through sardines as a snack, or eat a spoonful straight to cure your cold!

Bone broth- Cooking for the greatest health benefits

Historically loved

The remedial effects of bone broth have been known for thousands of years. The Chinese used it for kidney and digestive health from at least 2,500 years ago and many cultures around the world have used it also.  Bone broth is exceptionally good for you. It is great for healing and soothing the irritated or leaky gut mucosa and it boosts your immune system.

Healing nature

Mothers have been giving nourishing and healing chicken broth soup to their children forever as they all know it heals and sooths their ailing child. The curing effect of chicken soup against Respiratory Tract Infections has been found in research to be due to an increase in nasal mucus velocity, and its mild anti- inflammatory effects (Saketkhoo et al 1978 74(4):408-410). Bone broth is recommended for patients with autism and ADHD who undergo the GAPS diet with great results.

Nutrient rich

The bones, the marrow inside the bones, and the connective tissue are all full of nutrients which are extracted into the water when you make your bone broth. What is more, all these nutrients are easily digestible too. And it has been scientifically evaluated over a decade ago to confirm what all these cultures and peoples have already known. Bone broth is good!

There is lots of goodness you will get when consuming bone broth including:

  • Collagen which turns into gelatine
  • Glycine and proline (amino acids)
  • Vitamins (A and K, and Bs)
  • Glucosamine
  • Chondroitin and
  • Minerals (Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Iron, Selenium, Zinc, Manganese and Sulphur)

The benefits of consuming bone broth are many.

  • Glycine has inflammatory properties, supports the immune system, improves sleep
  • B vitamins helps your body digest fats, carbohydrates and proteins, and produce energy.
  • Gelatine, glucosamine and chondroitin support and protect and even rebuild your joints and bones.
  • It heals and soothes any upper respiratory tract infections.
  • Gelatine will also improve your skin, making is smoother, tighter and reduce cellulite.

Toxic metals

However, it is also important to consider the fact that animal bones are known to contain toxic heavy metals as well as minerals. In fact, calcium supplements are often made from bone meal, and some have been found to contain lead and cadmium too. People have wondered if consuming bone broth is detrimental due to the amounts of heavy metals that they are consuming along- side the minerals and other nutrients such as amino acids etc.  We will look at this shortly.

So, we know how good it is for us, and what benefits it will bring. If you are going to the trouble to make your own bone broth, which I highly recommend, then it is worth going to the effort to make it in a way where you get the most out of your broth.

Research examined how to cook bone broth to get the most benefits

A relevant research study was conducted by Hsu et al (Food & Nutrition Research Journal Vol 61(1):1347-478) in 2017 on exactly how to make bone broth to get the most goodness out of it. These researchers examined the extraction of heavy metals and minerals from bone broths to ascertain the risk of consuming heavy metals versus the benefits of gaining minerals.

They used 3 types of bones- pig- rib and leg, and beef. They examined cooking time, acidity, bone type and animal species.  The researchers simmered the bone broth for 12 hours. Samples were taken at intervals throughout the 12 hours and were analysed for calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, lead, cadmium and aluminium.


The broths that had the addition of acid were found to have increased amount of all the metals extracted except for zinc and iron. The pH was reduced from 8.35 to 5.32 and in these broths, the calcium and magnesium extraction were significantly greater. Copper was also increased. However, increases for lead, chromium and aluminium were mostly not significant. Interestingly, acidification reduced the extraction of iron.

 Cooking time

The broths that were cooked for longer than 8 hours were associated with significantly greater calcium and magnesium extraction. Overall, very low amounts of heavy metals were extracted- much less than the allowable daily amounts in foods.


Using different species of animal bones, and different bones from the same species yielded different amounts of nutrients. Reducing pH from 8.35 to 5.32 significantly increased the calcium and magnesium extraction and most other minerals. Longer cooking times (greater than 8 hours) extracted significantly higher amounts of calcium, magnesium and other minerals. There were minimal amount of heavy metals and these did not increase with acidification or longer cooking times.

So when you are making your bone broth, adhere to these important tips:

  • Only use organic bones to drastically reduce the amounts of heavy metals in it
  • Use chicken, lamb or beef bones
  • Use different parts of the carcass to gain different minerals
  • Add apple cider vinegar to reduce the pH
  • Cook for at least 8 hours, the longer the better. I often leave mine on for a few days and just scoop out what I need when I need it straight from the slow cooker on the bench.
  • Roast a leg of lamb or a chicken and then place the bones into your slow cooker.
  • Save any chicken drumsticks, wings, lamb chop bones etc until you have enough in your freezer. Then pop them all in the slow cooker and away you go! I always save the corn cobs and left-over veggies to chuck in also. I never mix lamb with chicken for example, but keep the species separate.
  • Enjoy the warm, nourishing and nurturing nature of your next mug of broth. Or enjoy the new richness of flavour of the next stew, casserole or soup you make with your very own bone broth added.

Make your own Bone Broth with this quick and easy guide

Bone broth is good. Enjoy!

Golden eggs- to eat or not to eat? That is the question.

Whether dietary cholesterol or egg consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease and death, remains controversial in academic communities. The impact that egg consumption has on LDLs and HDLs (serum cholesterol concentrations) has been heavily debated for years.

After reading many academic research articles on this very topic, I wish to share my unbiased conclusions.

Mortality rates decrease as egg consumption increases!

The Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Zhuang, Pan; Jiao, Jingjing; Wu, Fei et al (2020) 39(11):3520-3527) published a fifteen year-long research study with 18,914 adults, which found that the intake of cholesterol from eggs, was inversely associated with a total mortality count. As the egg consumption increased, the mortality rates decreased! The people whose diet included non-egg cholesterol sources, was positively related to total mortality. So eating other sources of dietary cholesterol did increase death rates. They concluded that egg consumption is associated with a lower total mortality among the Chinese population.

Another study in the USA found no significant association between egg consumption and mortality in US adults. There were 37,121 people studied for approximately 15 years (Peng-Fei, Xia; Xiong- Fei Pan; Chen Chen; Yi Wang et al  (2020) Journal of American Heart Association 9(10):1-11).

So if you want to live longer- then eat eggs!

Eggs provide many beneficial nutrients and decreases your serum cholesterol concentrations.

Song WO (Journal of American College of Nutrition (2000) 19(5):556S-562S) conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study to assess the nutritional significance of eggs in the American diet and to assess the association between egg consumption and serum cholesterol concentrations. Over 27,000 people were divided into either ‘Egg Consumers’ or ‘Non-Consumers’. The daily intake of all nutrients except for dietary fibre and B6, was significantly higher in the Egg Consumers than in the Non-Consumers. Eggs contributed many valuable nutrients to the diet including folate, Vitamin A, Vitamin E and B12. The Non-Consumers group had higher rates of inadequate intakes for B12, Vitamin A, Vitamin E and Vitamin C. Dietary cholesterol was found to be unrelated to the serum cholesterol levels. The Egg Consumers who ate four or more eggs per week had significantly lower serum cholesterol concentrations that those who ate one or less eggs per week. Higher egg consumption was negatively associated with serum cholesterol concentrations.

So eating more eggs will lower your cholesterol and give you lots of great nutrients!

However, in another study, a meta-analysis was conducted including 17 randomly controlled studies, and it was found that people in the ‘More Egg Consumption’ group had higher LDL/HDL ratio (cholesterol) than the control group. It is important to note that this study was very short covering only two months. They did not state how many eggs were consumed daily in the ‘More Egg Consumption’ group either (Li MY, Chen JH, Chen C, Kang YN Nutrients 2020 12(7).

Whilst this study had significant limitations, I do not think eating bucket loads of eggs is good for you. Moderation is the key.

What about your blood pressure and your risk of having a stroke when you eat eggs?

Well, a study by Abdollahi and Virtanen et al (2019) in Finland with 1,950 men aged between 42 and 60 years old found that the diastolic blood pressure was lower in the group with the highest egg consumptions (The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 110(1):169-176). Dietary intakes, blood pressures and stoke events were recorded. Neither egg nor cholesterol intakes were associated with stroke risk in this group.

So it looks like you are at no risk of having a stroke by eating eggs either.

In conclusion, eating eggs as part of a healthy diet will provide you with many beneficial nutrients, lower your cholesterol, lower your chances of death, lower your diastolic blood pressure and not increase your chances of having a stroke. My family and I love eating fresh, farm eggs straight from the chooks’ nests.

Eating organic, truly free- range eggs is a wonderful addition to your diet.

 Try my Eggs in a Nest recipe here. Enjoy!